Microbial Delivery Vehicles for Allergens and Allergen-Derived Peptides in Immunotherapy of Allergic Diseases
Veículos de entrega microbiana para alérgenos e peptídeos derivados de alérgenos na imunoterapia de doenças alérgicas
Abida Zahirović, Mojca Lunder
Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents the only available curative approach to allergic diseases. The treatment has proven effective, but it requires repetitive administrations of allergen extracts over 3–5 years and is often associated with adverse events. This implies the need for novel therapeutic strategies with reduced side effects and decreased treatment time, which would improve patients’ compliance. Development of vaccines that are molecularly well defined and have improved safety profile in comparison to whole allergen extracts represents a promising approach. Molecular allergy vaccines are based on major allergen proteins or allergen-derived peptides. Often, such vaccines are associated with lower immunogenicity and stability and therefore require an appropriate delivery vehicle. In this respect, viruses, bacteria, and their protein components have been intensively studied for their adjuvant capacity. This article provides an overview of the microbial delivery vehicles that have been tested for use in allergy immunotherapy. We review in vitro and in vivo data on the immunomodulatory capacity of different microbial vehicles for allergens and allergen-derived peptides and evaluate their potential in development of allergy vaccines. We also discuss relevant aspects and challenges concerning the use of microbes and their components in immunotherapy of allergic diseases.
allergy immunotherapy, bacteriophage, delivery vehicle, lactic acid bacteria, S-layers, virus-like
particle, viral surface protein
imunoterapia contra alergias, bacteriófago, veículo de entrega, bactérias do ácido lático, camadas S, partículas semelhantes a vírus, proteína de superfície viral