First-line management of canine status epilepticus at home and in hospital-opportunities and limitations of the various administration routes of
Tratamento de primeira linha do status epiléptico canino em casa e no hospital - oportunidades e limitações das várias vias de administração de benzodiazepinas
Marios Charalambous1, Holger A. Volk, Luc Van Ham, Sofie F. M. Bhatti
Status epilepticus (SE) or prolonged epileptic seizure activity is a common neurological emergency with a high mortality rate and, if left untreated, can lead to irreversible cerebral damage and systemic complications. Fast and effective first-line management is of paramount importance, particularly in the at-home management of seizures where drug administration routes are limited. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) have been exclusively used in veterinary medicine for decades as first-line drugs based on their high potency and rapid onset of action. Various administration routes exist in dogs, such as oral, intravenous, intramuscular, rectal, and intranasal, all with different advantages and limitations. Recently, intranasal drug delivery has become more popular due to its unique and favourable characteristics, providing potential advantages over other routes of drug administration in the management of canine SE. This narrative review provides an outline of the management of SE at home and in a hospital setting, discusses considerations and challenges of the various routes of BZD administration, and evaluates
the impact of intranasal drug administration (nose-brain pathway) for controlling canine SE at home and within hospital settings.
Dog, Emergency seizures, Epilepsy, Administration routes, Midazolam, Diazepam, Nasal
Cão, Convulsões de emergência, Crise epiléptica, Epilepsia, Vias de administração, Midazolam, Diazepam, Nasal