Efficacy of oral furalaner for the treatment of canine generalized demodicosis: a molecular-level confrmation
Eficácia do furalaner oral para o tratamento de demodiciose generalizada canina: uma confirmação em nível molecular
Milos Djuric, Natalija Milcic Matic, Darko Davitkov, Uros Glavinic, Dajana Davitkov, Branislav Vejnovic and Zoran Stanimirovic
Background: Canine generalized demodicosis is a common parasitic disease caused by the proliferation of Demodex
mites. The introduction of isoxazoline class treatments in veterinary dermatology has resulted in apparently efective
treatment of generalized demodicosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efectiveness of furalaner for
the treatment of canine generalized demodicosis using real-time PCR for the detection and quantifcation of Demodex DNA.
Methods: Twenty privately owned dogs with clinical symptoms of generalized demodicosis and deep skin scrapings
positive for Demodex canis mites were enrolled in the study. Following diagnosis (day 0) each dog was treated with
furalaner at the recommended commercial dose for tick and fea treatment (25–56 mg/kg) based on body weight.
Clinical and mite count assessments, and hair sampling for molecular analyses were performed on days 0, 28, 56, 84
and 112. Demodex DNA was detected and quantifed using real-time PCR.
Results: A single oral dose of furalaner reduced Demodex mite counts in skin scrapings by an average of 98.9% in all
dogs by day 28. No mites were recovered from skin scrapings from any treated dog by day 56, at which time the dog
was considered to be clinically cured, with total hair regrowth. There were signifcant diferences among examined
dogs in qPCR cycle threshold (Ct) values on days 0, 28, 56, 84 and 112. Demodex DNA levels decreased (increasing
Ct values) throughout the study. Mite DNA was present on day 112, possibly from dead mites, at values signifcantly
lower than in samples taken on days 0, 28 and 56. Based on qPCR testing of diluted samples, the Demodex mite population was reduced by approximately 1000-fold on day 112.
Conclusions: Oral administration of furalaner at the recommended dose to dogs with generalized demodicosis is
highly efective for reducing Demodex mite populations and resolving clinical signs of generalized demodicosis. The
presence of mite DNA may indicate that treatment did not kill all Demodex mites.
Keywords: Demodex canis, Dog, Fluralaner, Real-time PCR, Treatment