Canine Lymphoma as a Comparative Model for Human NonHodgkin Lymphoma: Recent Progress and Applications

8 de dezembro de 2020

Linfoma canino como modelo comparativo para linfoma humano não-Hodgkin: progresso e aplicações recentes

Autores

Daisuke Ito, Aric M. Frantz, and Jaime F. Modiano

Abstract

The term “lymphoma” describes a heterogeneous group of disorders involving monoclonal
proliferation of malignant lymphocytes. As a group, lymphomas are among the most common
tumors of dogs. Yet our enumeration and understanding of the many subtypes of lymphoma have
been relatively slow, perhaps in part because for many years lymphoma was treated as a singular
entity rather than a group of distinct diseases. The recognition that the full spectrum of lymphoid
malignancies seen in humans also occurs in dogs, and that these tumors retain not only
morphologic similarities and biological behavior but also synonymous driver molecular
abnormalities, sets an ideal stage for dual-purpose research that can accelerate progress for these
diseases in both species. Specifically, dogs represent exceptional models for defining causality,
understanding progression, and developing new treatments for lymphoma in comparatively brief
windows of time. Unique advantages of canine models include (1) spontaneous disease occurring
without an isogenic background or genetic engineering; (2) chronology of disease adapted to
lifespan, (3) shared environment and societal status that allows dogs to be treated as “patients,”
while at the same time being able to ethically explore translational innovations that are not
possible in human subjects; and (4) organization of dogs into breeds with relatively homogeneous
genetic backgrounds and distinct predisposition for lymphomas. Here, we will review recent
studies describing intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of canine and
human lymphomas, as well as newly developed tools that will enhance the fidelity of these models
to improve diagnosis and develop new treatments.

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