Thirteen dogs and a cat with ultrasonographically detected gallbladder wall edema associated with cardiac disease
Treze cães e um gato apresentam edema de vesícula biliar detectado ultrassonograficamente associado a cardiopatia.
Gregory R. Lisciandro, Jennifer M. Gambino, Stephanie C. Lisciandro
Background: Ultrasonographically detected gallbladder wall edema (GBWE) is a marker for anaphylaxis in dogs. Cardiac disease can cause GBWE with similar signs and should be included as a differential diagnosis to prevent interpretation errors.
Hypothesis/Objectives: Document GBWE associated with cardiac disease.
Animals: Fourteen client-owned animals.
Methods: Prospective case series with abdominal focused assessment with abdominal sonography in trauma, triage and tracking (AFAST), and thoracic focused assessment with abdominal sonography in trauma, triage, and tracking (TFAST) performed at triage. Animals with GBWE and cardiac disease were enrolled. A board-certified radiologist reviewed images to confirm cardiac disease, GBWE, and characterize the caudal vena cava (CVC) and hepatic veins.
Results: Thirteen dogs and 1 cat had GBWE associated with cardiac disease. Gallbladder findings included mural thickness ranging from 3 to 5 mm, mild to moderate sludge (n = 3), and mild to moderate luminal distension (n = 6). CVC and hepatic venous distension were found in 5/6. Cardiac diagnoses in dogs included 11 with pericardial effusion (PCE) and 1 each with dilated cardiomyopathy and right-sided myocardial failure. Severity of PCE was rated as mild (n = 1), moderate (n = 6), or severe (n = 4). Seven of 11 had pericardiocentesis performed. Nine of 13 had ascites with 4 having abdominal fluid scores of 1 (n = 2), 2 (n = 2), 3 (n = 1), and 4 (n = 0). Lung ultrasound findings were as follows: dry lung (n = 6), B-lines (n = 4), and nodules (n = 1). The cat had moderate PCE, ascites scored as 1, and severe rightsided ventricular enlargement associated with a ventricular septal defect. Primary presenting
complaints included acute weakness (n = 9), acute collapse (n = 5), gastrointestinal signs (n = 3), respiratory distress (n = 2), and need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n = 1).
Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Ultrasonographically detected GBWE was associated with PCE in this small cohort of cases.
Cardiac gallbladder, FAST, gallbladder wall edema, ultrasound
Vesícula biliar, cardíaca, FAST, edema de vesícula biliar, ultrassom