The diagnostic value of intravenous contrast computed tomography in addition to plain computed tomography in dogs with head trauma
O valor diagnóstico de contraste intravenoso na tomografia computadorizada além da tomografia computadorizada simples em cães com trauma crânio encefálico
Yasamin Vali, Ingrid Gielen, Sarang Soroori, Eberhard Ludewig
Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate additional findings which can be detected by post-contrast computed tomography (CCT) in relation to plain CT (PCT) findings in patients presented with head trauma. Medical records of canine patients with the history of head trauma from three institutions were reviewed. PCT- and CCT anonymized images were evaluated by a veterinary radiologist separately. From the categorized findings the following conclusions were drawn as: abnormalities were identified on (A) PCT but missed on CCT, (B) CCT but missed on PCT, (C) both PCT and CCT.
Results: Thirty-two patients were included. The results showed that findings identified on CCT or PCT (category A and B) but missed on the other series were limited to mild soft tissue and sinus changes. Overall, 61 different fracture areas, 6 injuries of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), 4 orbital injuries, 14 nasal cavities with soft tissue density filling, 13 areas of emphysema, 4 symphysis separations, 12 intracranial hemorrhages, 6 cerebral edema, 5 cerebral midline shifts, 3 intracranial aeroceles, 3 brain herniations and 6 intraparenchymal foreign bodies (defined as an abnormal structure located within the brain: e.g. bony fragments, bullet, teeth,..) were identified on both PCT and CCT separately (category C). Severity grading was different in 50% (3/6) of the reported cerebral edema using PCT and CCT images.
Conclusion: The results showed that PCT is valuable to identify the presence of intracranial traumatic injuries and CCT is not always essential to evaluate vital traumatic changes.
Head trauma, Computed tomography, Intravenous contrast administration, Dog