Spatial and seroepidemiology of canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic Southeast Brazilian area

29 de maio de 2020

Tamiris Fagundes Rodrigues[1], Aline do Nascimento Benitez[2], Anaiá da Paixão Sevá[3],
Lucas Hidenori Okamura[4], André Batista Galvão[4], Jancarlo Ferreira Gomes[2],
Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani[4] and Tereza Cristina Cardoso[4]

Introduction: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a public health problem, and its prevalence is associated with the coexistence of
vectors and reservoirs. CVL is a protozoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum that is endemic in the southeast region of Brazil. Thus,
vector and canine reservoir control strategies are needed to reduce its burden. This study aimed to verify the CVL seroprevalence and
epidemiology in a municipality in Southeast Brazil to initiate disease control strategies. Methods: A total of 833 dogs were subjected
to Dual Path Platform (DPP) testing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. For seropositive dogs, epidemiological aspects were
investigated using a questionnaire and a global position system. The data were submitted to simple logistic regression, kernel estimation,
and Bernoulli spatial scan statistical analysis. Results: The overall CVL-confirmed seroprevalence was 16.08%. The 28.93% in the
DPP screening test was associated with dogs maintained in backyards with trees, shade, animal and/or bird feces, and contact with
other dogs and cats, with sick dogs showing the highest chances of infection (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.38–1.98),
especially in residences with elderly people. A spatial analysis identified two hotspot regions and detected two clusters in the study area.
Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that residences with elderly people and the presence of trees, shade, feces, and pet dogs and cats
increased an individual’s risk of developing CVL. The major regions where preventive strategies for leishmaniasis were to be initiated
in the endemic area were identified in two clusters.
Keywords: Dual Path Platform. Kernel estimation. Leishmania. Risk factors. Zoonoses

Leishmania, fatores de risco, soroepidemiologia, visceral

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