Pulmonary Barotrauma & Pneumothorax During Anesthesia
Barotrauma Pulmonar e Pneumotórax durante a anestesia
In anesthesia, the term barotrauma is used to describe lung tissue trauma resulting from excessively high airway pressure associated with excessive inflation of the lungs and alveolar overdistension, which can result in alveolar and pleural rupture.1,2 When alveolar rupture occurs, air leaks into the pleural space and creates a closed pneumothorax, which in turn can rapidly evolve into a tension pneumothorax, especially if mechanical ventilation is being used. The resulting excessively high intrathoracic pressure impairs venous return to the heart, severely compromising stroke volume and cardiac output. If not quickly recognized and corrected, life-threatening cardiovascular collapse can occur.