Partial cortico-hippocampectomy in cats, as therapy for refractory temporal epilepsy: A descriptive cadaveric study
Cortico-hipocampectomia parcial em gatos, como terapia para epilepsia temporal refratária: um estudo descritivo em cadáveres
Jessica Zilli, Monika Kressin, Anne Schanzer, Marian Kampschulte, Martin J. Schmidt
Cats, similar to humans, are known to be affected by hippocampal sclerosis (HS), potentially causing antiepileptic drug (AED) resistance. HS can occur as a consequence of chronic seizure activity, trauma, inflammation, or even as a primary disease. In humans, temporal lobe resection is the standardized therapy in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The majority of TLE patients are seizure free after surgery. Therefore, the purpose of this prospective cadaveric study is to establish a surgical technique for hippocampal resection in cats as a treatment for AED resistant seizures. Ten cats of different head morphology were examined. Pre-surgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) studies of the animals’ head were carried out to complete 3D reconstruction of the head, brain, and hippocampus. The resected hippocampal specimens and the brains were histologically examined for tissue injury adjacent to the hippocampus. The feasibility of the procedure, as well as the usability of the removed specimen for histopathological examination, was assessed. Moreover, a micro-CT (mCT) examination of the brain of two additional cats was performed in order to assess temporal vasculature as a reason for possible intraoperative complications. In all cats but one, the resection of the temporal cortex and the hippocampus were successful without any evidence of traumatic or vascular lesions in the surrounding neurovascular structures. In one cat, the presence of mechanical damage (a fissure) of the thalamic surface was evident in the histopathologic examination of the brain post-resection. All hippocampal fields and the dentate gyrus were identified in the majority of the cats via histological examination. The study describes a new surgical approach (partial temporal cortico- hippocampectomy) offering a potential treatment for cats with clinical and diagnostic evidence of temporal epilepsy which do not respond adequately to the medical therapy.
antiepileptic drug resistance, feline, seizure
resistência a drogas antiepilépticas, felina, convulsão