A review of Horner’s syndrome in small animals
Uma revisão da síndrome de Horner em pequenos animais
Danielle M. Zwueste, Bruce H. Grahn
Horner’s syndrome arises from dysfunction of the oculosympathetic pathway and is characterized by miosis, enophthalmos, protrusion of the third eyelid, and ptosis. It has been recognized in a wide variety of breeds and ages in small animal patients. The oculosympathetic pathway is a 3-neuron pathway. The central/first order neuron arises from the hypothalamus and extends down the spinal cord. The preganglionic/second order neuron arises from the first 3 thoracic spinal cord segments and travels through the thorax and cervical region until it synapses at the cranial cervical ganglion. The postganglionic/third order neuron travels from this ganglion to the orbit. Topical application of cocaine is the gold standard for differentiating Horner’s syndrome from other causes of miosis. Topical 1% phenylephrine allows for identification of a post-ganglion Horner’s syndrome. Numerous etiologies have been reported for Horner’s syndrome, but idiopathic disease is most common. Ancillary diagnostics include otoscopic examination, thoracic radiographs, or advanced imaging. Treatment and prognosis are determined by the etiology.